A local public library needs a program to calculate the overdue fines owed by its patrons. The library needs the clerk to enter the full name and age of the patron. The clerk also needs to enter the name and the number of days overdue for the item. (The library accounts for full days overdue and not partial days overdue.) The library wants the clerk to be presented with a menu from which the type of material overdue can be chosen. The menu should look as follows:
Books that are overdue are assessed a fine of 50 cents per day. Magazines are assessed a fine of 25 cents per day. DVDs are assessed a fine of $1.50 a day. Senior Citizens (over the age of 70) do not pay fines. Juvenile patrons (ages 6 through 17) pay a maximum fine of $1.00. There is a maximum fine assessed of $5.00 for all other patrons.
Once the fine has been calculated all information about the patron and the overdue material should be printed to the screen. Here is an example of the report that should be output:
Name Mickey Mouse
Item Name Fantasia
Item Type DVD
Number of Days Overdue 2
Overdue Fine $3.00
Each time the program is executed it calculates the fine for a single patron.
Claxton Drywall Comes to the Rescue
A law firm is expanding rapidly and must move to new office space. Business is good, and the firm is encouraged to purchase an entire building for $10 million. the building offers first-class office space, is conveniently located near their most important corporate clients, and provides space for future expansion. The firm is considering how to pay for it.
Claxton Drywall, a consultant, encourages the firm not to buy the building but to sign a long-term lease for the building instead. “With lease financing, you’ll save $10 million. You won’t have to put up any equity investment”, Drywall explains.
The senior law partner asks about the terms of the lease. “I’ve taken the liberty to check”, Drywall says. “The lease will provide 100% financing. It will commit you to 20 fixed annual payments of $950,000, with the first payment due immediately.”
“The initial payment of $950,000 sounds like a down payment to me”, the senior partner observes sourly.
“Good point”, Drywall ways amiably, “but you’ll still save $9,050,000 up front. You can earn a handsome rate of return on that money. For example, I understand you are considering branch offices in London and Brussels. The $9 million would pay the costs of setting up the new offices, and the cash flows from the new offices should more than cover the lease payments. And there’s no financial risk-the cash flows from the expansion will cover the lease payments with a safety cushion. There’s no reason for you or your partners to worry or to demand a higher-than-normal rate of return”.
Suppose the present value of the building equals its purchase price of $10 million. Assume that the law firm can finance the offices in London and Brussels from operating cash flow, with cash left over for the lease payments. The firm will not default on the lease payments. For simplicity you can ignore taxes.
1. If the law firm takes the lease, it will invest $950,000 an in effect borrow $9,050,000, repaid by 19 installments of $950,000. What is the interest rate of return on this disguised loan?
2. The law firm could finance 80% of the purchase price with a conventional mortgage at a 7% interest rate. Is the conventional mortgage better than the lease?
3. Construct a simple numerical example to convince Drywall that the lease would expose the law firm to financial risk. Hint : What is the rate of return on the firm’s equity investment in the office building if a recession arrives and the market value of the (leased) office building falls to $9 million after one year? What is the rate of return with the conventional mortgage financing? With all-equity financing?
Can i get step-by-step solution for this case. I need it immediately. Thanks so much.